A Review of Socialization In Sociology

socialization in sociology

Socialization in sociology refers to the sociological process of learning about what is appropriate behavior as part of a larger social group in a broader society. In primary socialization, humans are generally taught to respect other people’s rights and obligations as reflected in customary rules of conduct. Humans also learn to establish and maintain relationships with others based on mutual respect and trust. In secondary socialization, children are often encouraged to develop and practice a wide range of behaviors that are appropriate for their socially defined roles. Finally, in adulthood, people are taught how to deal with change and adapt to changes in the society in which they live.

Steps In Secondary Socialization

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The first step in secondary socialization refers to the identification and definition of appropriate behaviors as reflected in customary rules of conduct as applied to the individual. This includes establishing a balance between what is considered socially acceptable and what is considered deviant. Individuals learn how to establish and uphold balanced relationships among themselves as reflected in the family and peer groups. Children who are exposed to a number of sources of information may be encouraged to choose and create meaningful relationships as reflected in schools, at home, and in their communities. Learning how to constructively communicate and listen to one another is an important component of this process.

The second step in secondary socialization refers to children’s experiences outside the family home in social settings. Learning about the self, other individuals, and the world in general through literature, movies, and plays is an important part of this process. This period in children’s development typically involves a period of adjustment disorders if there are serious disruptions in the environment and family dynamics that negatively affect children’s adjustment. Examples of these disruptions can include institutional care, early sexual abuse, neglectful marriage or parenting, or poverty and ethnic diversity.

Ways To Help Children Learn About Socialization In Sociology

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One of the most effective ways to help children learn about socialization in sociology and to develop healthy socialization skills is for teachers and educators to teach about these concepts early and to engage in activities designed to teach socialization objectives. Teachers should facilitate discussions about socialization and explain the concepts and provide examples of children’s socialization processes as well as offer resources such as worksheets, activities, games, and journal writing. Parents and educators should be encouraged to learn about and practice these skills themselves. A good socialization program should also include peer support groups that provide children with opportunities to practice socialization skills with others as well as practice communicating and relating to others.

The third phase in secondary socialization refers to children’s understanding of and adjustment to their environment as it relates to their identities, values, and goals. Children also begin to understand that they have unique personal qualities that set them apart from other children. Socialization experts believe that students tend to become more secure and emotionally healthy when they are introduced to a variety of people, groups, and situations. This allows them to gain a sense of self-worth and leads to a stronger sense of community.

Phase Of Childhood Socialization

The fourth phase of childhood socialization refers to children’s preferences, desires, and motivations. These interests and desires shape their self-image, and they also help them form an ideal self-image. For example, children who have strong cultural and social roots are likely to value and adhere to these values throughout their lives. Students who demonstrate a strong sense of socialization in nature also tend to value and adhere to these same environmental values. It is important, then, for teachers to support these interests and desires in their students through positive socialization. One effective way to support a student’s interests is to provide opportunities for outdoor play or group activities.

The fifth and final stage of childhood socialization occurs after a student has formed his or her own self-image and identity. This involves the development of three key takeaways: the importance of maintaining social relationships, the value of maintaining personal independence, and the importance of accepting one’s identity for who it is. In essence, these five key takeaways represent core components of individual identity formation. Once these are developed, students will be well on their way to establishing their own sense of personal worth, a sense of their place in the world, and the ability to make informed decisions about their own lives. These key takeaways can be used by teachers to encourage students to explore and develop their individual identity formations.

Final Thoughts

In summary, a teacher can help students realize their unique cultural identity through a variety of socialization techniques. These techniques include positive reinforcement, socialization through group participation, informal and formal interaction, and interaction with one’s own identity formation. Positive reinforcement may be provided for students who demonstrate positive attitudes toward people of certain ethnicity, culture, or language. Conversely, negative reinforcement may be used to discourage people who demonstrate a negative attitude toward people of certain ethnicity, culture, or language.

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